The Brine-Fly-Larvae-Eaters

What’s YOUR main source of protein? Burgers? Pork chops? Tofu? Peanut butter? Beans and rice? All of those are easy to find in 21st Century America. We don’t even have to prepare them ourselves if we don’t want to.

21st Century meals on the road

But for the Paiute Indians of the Great Basin, finding food to sustain life was such a constant struggle that each Paiute band was named after the main source of food available in its immediate geographical region. These bands included Fish-Eaters, Grass-Nut Eaters, Cattail-Eaters, Ground-Squirrel-Eaters, Jackrabbit-Eaters, etc. The Mono Lake band were the Kutzedika’a, “Brine-Fly-Larvae-Eaters.”

Brine-flies live at the edge of Mono Lake, a unique body of water east of Yosemite near the California-Nevada border, with a biology, geology and history all its own. The lake is surrounded with bizarre rocky towers formed of calcium-carbonate limestone. Its water is alkaline and undrinkable; no fish can live in it. The Kutzedika’a people who lived around it drank from fresh-water creeks flowing into the lake from the Sierras. And they ate the foods that they could harvest around the lake, such as kutsavi, the larvae of the brine-flies, pine-nuts from the stunted piñons that grew on the nearby slopes, and piaghi, the fat, juicy caterpillar of the Pandora moth they harvested every other year from the stands of Jeffrey pines south of the lake.

Mono Lake brine-fly larvae

Kutzedika'a foodstuff: brine-fly larvae

Here’s a picture of a handful of brine-fly larvae. They don’t look very appetizing to us, but to the Kutzedika’a they were the difference between life and death by starvation. What do they taste like? I’ve never tried them myself, but one 19th Century white traveler called them salty like sardines, while they reminded a 20th Century visitor of wheat germ. They must have been tasty as well as nutritious, since every year the Kutzedika’a traded them for acorns and other foodstuffs harvested by Indians from other regions.

In The Second Promise, an old Kutzedika’a woman and her granddaughter, Una, have taken Cali under their protection. Cali and Una were making bead projects, but one day, there’s something more important than beading.

The old woman made Cali and Una put away their beadwork and go with the younger women to the lake, each carrying a winnowing basket shaped like a giant, slightly curved tear-drop. Knee-deep in water, they scooped up load after load of the wiggling larvae of the brine fly which rimmed the bank in a thick dark layer. Swarms of flies rose in front of them in a soft, buzzing mass. Una joined them, but Cali stood back from the shore and watched the water fall through the loose weave of the baskets in a dribbling cascade, splashing the women’s skirts and scattering sunlight. Then the women dumped the larvae out of their baskets and spread them out on the sand, still wriggling, to dry before wading in again to scoop up more. Back at camp, the women rubbed off their shells. The old woman pointed to the larvae as she rubbed. Kutsavi, she said, and grinned her gap-toothed grin.

Here’s a winnowing basket like the ones the Kutzadika’a women used:

Mono Lake-style antique winnowing basket

Mono Lake, shown in the pictures by my husband Paul Abernathy, is a beautiful, fascinating place.

Mono Lake looking west toward the Sierras

Mono Lake at sunset

Despite its undrinkable water, Mono Lake is a stopping place for hundreds of thousands of birds migrating on the Pacific Flyway.

Tufa towers in Mono Lake

And plenty of unusual small creatures live in the lake. Only recently, in a NASA-funded study, biologists were amazed to discover that some bacteria at the bottom of lake are able to exist and reproduce using arsenic instead of phosphorus. Since arsenic usually poisons living creatures, these unique bacteria are actually being called “a new life form”.  Here’s a picture of Felicia Wolfe-Simon, the astrobiologist who made this astounding discovery.

Photo courtesy of

Felicia Wolfe-Simon, astrobiologist, at Mono Lake

The Kutzedika’a people did not know about arsenic-tolerant bacteria, but they knew all about brine flies. If you visit Mono Lake, you’ll be aware of them too. They are like a thick, black, moving carpet of insects ringing the shoreline. As you approach, they rise up from the water and the shore, buzzing in annoyance, and you think they are about to land on you, but they don’t. You walk through, and the carpet of flies does not touch you. It just rises and buzzes to make room for your feet, and then settles back down again. This huge mass of insects lays huge numbers of eggs, which develop into larvae during the late summer. The larvae form their own floating carpet around the edge of the lake.

Cali couldn’t bear to look at the wriggling larvae drying on the hard sand at the edge of the lake, but when she got hungry enough, she ate them anyway, toasted over a fire or mashed into a paste. Next time you see a can of sardines or a jar of wheat germ, think about what it would take to survive if you were one of the Kutzedika’a people back in the 19th Century. And think about how much harder it would be after the 1860’s, when white settlers began cutting down most of the piñons and Jeffrey pines to fuel their towns and mines.

Nowadays, many middle-class Americans try to be locavores, choosing foods grown close to home. The Kutzedika’a and other Native peoples had very few choices about what to eat, but I like to think of them as the original American locavores.

This entry was posted in Kutzedika'a Paiute Indians, Mono Lake and tagged , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

6 Responses to The Brine-Fly-Larvae-Eaters

  1. Lanie says:

    When your book is published, perhaps you can have an appendix of your blogs. They are so interesting, especially this one, and Paul’s photos are wonderful. Thanks for the education! I thought they were brine “shrimp” larvae, but now I learn that they’re bring “fly” larvae. That makes them even less appetizing, but our favored foods seem to be pretty much a question of habit.

  2. Isabelle says:

    I remember being fascinated by those larvae when you took me to visit Mono Lake during the Yosemite camping trip. And your dog leaping and snapping at them. The sheer millions of them were mind-boggling. Good to know they have a purpose as nourishment. Thanks for the explanation and wonderful photos.

  3. says:

    Some fruits are simpler and easier as compared with some others to carry and eat while out and about for instance apples and mandarins, so either leave the messy ones for at home or cut up the fruit up and bring it along with you inside a compact container with a fork if that would help..

  4. Jim's Blog says:

    This blog entry reminded me of my only visit to Mono Lake. The guide/ranger told the story of the Kutzetika’a being saved by the Brine-fly. He asked if anyone in the group was brave enough to try one, and I volunteered. It was crunchy and salty as you stated — not bad for a lake-side snack! Thanks for the above story… it brought back some fond memories. — Jim Fowler, Greenville, SC.

  5. Glad you enjoyed it, Jim! Mono Lake is one of my favorite places. That’s one reason Cali, the main character in my historical novel The Second Promise, spent several weeks there under the protection of the Kutzetika’a.

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